Free breathing transformers are equipped with an under-cover airbag or a casing to allow the oil to expand during temperature changes. Because it is not hermetic, the oil is always in contact with the air. Moisture is blocked by the use of dehydrated salts (aeration) contained in special filters. The tank can be fins or radiators. This design is valid for all powers (especially 4000kVA and above). For higher powers and to avoid contact between oil and air, a rubber separator (rubber bag) or nitrogen pad is used.
Such transformers are equipped with an expansion tank or conservator mounted above the main tank. The expansion of the insulating fluid is balanced inside the housing by the rising oil level. In the conservator, the top of the oil is in contact with air, which must remain dry to prevent oxidation. This is accomplished by removing outside air from the enclosure by means of a desiccant containing silica gel crystals.
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